A B C D E F G H I J K L M N O P Q R S T U V W X Y Z 0-9

Term Definition
Acceptance Criteria Requirements that a project or system must demonstrate before stakeholders will accept delivery represents a criteria for acceptance.
Account A subscriber to a computer system is given a logon and/or password which is an account.
Accountability Being accountable is the underlying framework of a program, policy, procedure or process. There is a pyramid of responsibility around accountability. It is the responsibility of senior management, functional management, sponsors, team leaders, team members and in some cases stakeholders to ensure accountability. Oversight committees and watchdog groups have been established to help reinforce compliance and adherence. Accountability provides evidence to all involved that a project is effective, efficient and in conformance with its project charter, project scope and project plan. There should be a systematic inclusion of critical elements in the project, beginning with the initiation through closure, involving minimally a lessons learned.
Accountability Matrix A document that specifies roles and responsibilities in relation of individuals to assigned tasks on a project with specific dates and objectives for completion is an accountability matrix.
Acknowledgement In computer terms, acknowledge is the process of a computer recognizing a request of a user.
Active Listening Paying close attention to what is said, asking the other party to describe carefully, clearly and concisely what is meant, and requesting that ideas be repeated to clarify any ambiguity, uncertainty, or anything else that was not understood. Active listening is best done in person, and in an area where participants will not be distracted.
Adoptability Adoptability is the willingness of individuals and/or groups to accept and/or embrace content in the KM system.
Annotate Annotating is the ability to attach notes to images by typing them in on a keyboard, using a light pen or digitizing tablet. Annotation helps clarify information on documents or images.
Anonymous A method to access a computer system without identifying oneself is anonymity.
Append Appending is the process of adding to a file, such as a log file or shared file. This process commonly adds the new content to the end of the file.
Alias Computer systems are setup to have names. An alias is a computer name that points to another computer name primarily for security purposes. Most Web addresses (URLs) are either wholly or partly aliases.
Analysis See analyze. An analysis is an output of (or the result of ) analyzing something. Conducting an analysis involves separating anything complex into simple or less complex parts.
Analysis Paralysis This term refers to the human inability to effectively make decisions. The individual or group isn’t making the desired progress because of being bogged down in details, making changes, adjustments, or related efforts. A common approach to problem-solving is to identify, evaluate, design solutions, create a test case, and then remove the cause(s) of the problem. Sometimes this is not possible because the cause(s) cannot be agreed upon or found.
Analyze Analyzing something is a process of systematically and critically examining facts and evidence.
Anonymity This is the ability for a user to surf the web transparent to ISPs. Anonymity may also refer to a computer not having a name. It may be setup in an anonymous configuration for security.
Articulate Indicating exactly what you want so that others understand it is articulation. It does not refer to pronunciation in this context. An example of articulate is “we need a system that can support simultaneous access of 100 users – are we clear.”
Artificial Intelligence (AI) AI is a growing set of computer problem-solving techniques that attempt to imitate logically defined decision making processes.
Assess See Evaluate. Assessing something involves determining the importance, value, significance, quality, benefit, usefulness, or other defined impact.
Assessment See evaluation. It is the outcome or result of evaluating something, such as an organization’s needs. It requires a systematic process. An assessment is commonly presented in a report.
Assessor Auditor who addresses financial issues usually for tax purposes.
Assignable Cause An assignable cause is a source of a variation in a process that can be isolated, especially if it has a significantly larger magnitude or different origin, which distinguishes it from random causes of variation.
Authority Power or influence, either granted to or developed by an individual or group that leads to others doing what is directed or recommended. A project charter helps with authority.
Authorization The process of determining whether a subscriber or authorized user may use a service, perform a task or execute a function on a system.
Auto Indexing Automatically indexing documents on a server based upon keywords or pre-defined criteria to make storage and retrieval more logical.
Term Definition
Background Processing that occurs without impacting current system activities, i.e., printing is said to occur in the background.
Balanced Scorecard A balanced scorecard is a model method of evaluating business performance based upon measures of financial performance, internal operations, innovation and learning, and customer satisfaction.
Band-Aid A temporary fix or solution to a problem, i.e., loss in network connectivity is a band-aid.
Barrier Barriers are situations or circumstances which are difficult to overcome, such as worsening internal politics within an organization. A barrier is also defined as a method of self-protection in a computer network.
Baseline A baseline is a ‘snapshot’ in time of one version of each document in a project repository. It provides an official starting point on which subsequent work is to be based, and to which only authorized changes can be made. After an initial baseline is set, every subsequent change to a baseline is recorded as a delta until the next baseline is identified.
Beneficiary Those who receive the benefits of something, i.e., for new network software the beneficiaries may be the individual users.
Benefit Something that has perceived value, i.e., increases speed of processing is a benefit.
Benchmark A standard against which measurements or comparisons can be made is a benchmark.
Benchmarking There are different perspectives on the concept of benchmarking depending upon its use and context. In general terms, b enchmarking involves comparing activities, standards, levels of performance, and other factors to those of another organization. Benchmarks are the output or result of a benchmarking activity. Organizations use benchmarks to develop new and improved strategies. Benchmarking may be a one time effort or continuous improvement process. Benchmarking as an activity involves analysis, and therefore is evaluation. Benchmarking involves a determination of merit (quality), worth (value) or significance (importance). There are various types of benchmarking, i.e., best-in-class benchmarking and industry benchmarking. There are various methods of conducting benchmarking, i.e., collaboratively and competitively. The three most common external benchmarking techniques are competitive, industry, and best-in-class.
Best Practice See Good Practice. Best practice is a management concept which purports that there is a particular way of doing something than is better than any other way currently identified under the given circumstances. Best practices are highly situation specific in nature. The idea is that a best practice is tested and proven and can help avoid unforeseen complications. Best practices can also be defined as the most effective and/or efficient method of accomplishing a task. Best practices base their validity and/or reliability based on track record.
Bias A negative viewpoint that exists regarding a particular issue is a bias.
Board A virtual space on the Internet where information can be posted is a board.
Bliki A bliki (also known as a wikiLog) is combination of a blog and wiki
Blog Blog is a contraction of Web and log, and refers to journal-oriented content displayed in most recent order (last in/first out). Blogs may be used to provide commentaries on a particular topic, such as lessons learned. A blog is a digital file that can be appended by the subscriber. A blog can combine content, such as text, images, media files, as well as link to other information sources, i.e., web pages. The application of Blogs can vary, i.e., photographs (photoblog), videos (vlog), or audio (podcasting). Blogs used in organizations may be used to multi-author content and/or provide a vehicle for collaboration. Some blogs may take on the form of a free-form multi-user digital diary, while others Blogs are highly structured. The benefits of using a blog include gathering and distributing ideas and information to a select group of subscribers. Blogs are also used in situations where communicating with subscribers is ineffective due to limited information access to digital files.
Brainstorm A critical and/or creative thinking skills approach that is designed to generate the most extensive list of ideas relating to a particular topic. Brainstorming may be performed individually or in a group. Brainstorming is an important part of a lessons learned process.
Breach Unauthorized, unlawful, or illegal practices associated with computer access or use is a breach. To reduce breaches, organizations have disclaimers which prevent inappropriate use.
Business Case A business case is justification of why the project is necessary for the organization and what the deliverables are going to be. It should minimally include a Return on Investment (ROI), or a Cost/Benefit Analysis (C/BA) for the project. It should also include a comprehensive summary of the performance characteristics, major project risks, and the alternatives. The project’s sponsor in conjunction with the project team is responsible for developing the business case.
Business Continuity Reducing or eliminating downtime, while increasing application availability to meet an organization’s needs is considered continuity.
Business Intelligence (BI) BI refers to applications and technologies that are used to gather, provide access to, and analyze information about an organization’s operations. BI systems can help organizations have access to more comprehensive data so they can make more informed decisions.
Term Definition
Cache A cache is a place to hide or store something. In a computer, it is a memory area where frequently accessed data can be stored for rapid access.
Capacity Building (CB) Building organizational capacity is a term that commonly refers to increasing access to organizational knowledge.
Case Study A case study is a detailed description of a project in the context of its environment. It commonly depicts a problem, steps to correct the problem, and recommendations for further improvement.
Centralized Equipment or users are at a main location, and external connectivity is pointed to that location.
Change Management (CM) Managing change involves a systematic approach to implementing agreed upon steps (processes and procedures) to ensure that changes are implemented in an anticipated, planned, and orderly fashion. Effective change management involves instilling new values, encouraging new attitudes, embracing new norms, and creating desired behaviors. It also involves building consensus among employees, and may extend to relationship building with stakeholders and customers. There are various dimensions to change management; one involves sponsorship, which engages sponsors and key stakeholders in the process. Another dimension involves personal resilience, or the ability to adapt to change.
Chat Room A virtual room where people can communicate in real time while on the Internet or on an intranet. Depending upon the configuration of the chat room as text-based, text/voice based, or text/video based subscribers enter their messages and communicate with other chat room subscribers.
Checklist A checklist is a tool that is used to determine if an item under investigation meets pre-defined standards, and can be constructed as an outline to enable quick data collection. A checklist can also be created in a matrix design to allow for multi-dimensional analysis, i.e., ratings per item. It is not uncommon to use special symbols or coding schemes to further compress data collection.
Client A client is the requesting program or system in a client/server arrangement.
Client/Server (CS) A client-server relationship describes the communication between the receiver (user’s computer) and a service provider (server).
Clone A clone is a computer system look-alike, i.e., like IBM that is purchased because it costs less.
Cloudy A lack of clarity regarding an issue or a process is considered cloudy. The situation may be impacted by barriers and/or constraints making it difficult to making decisions or progress.
Code To assign attributes to specific data so that it may be categorized.
Codification Codification focuses on efficiency and effectiveness of operationally focused value chains. It involves taking knowledge and associating it with particular attributes so that it can be categorized, stored and retrieved. Codification is commonly associated with information technology solutions to knowledge management.
Collaboration Collaboration is the process of bringing people, processes, or systems together. It involves developing a mutually beneficial, well-defined relationship. Collaboration involves joint planning, sharing resources, and integrated resource management. It can also involve brining together content from across an organization and between companies. Collaboration tools allow users to seamlessly exchange documents, ideas, and project plans, ideally in real-time and from remote locations. Information can be stored in a central repository where it can be shared.
Communication Communication is the process of transmitting data or information. It involves sending, receiving, transferring or sharing data. Communication can take various forms including audible, visual or graphics; it includes, but is not limited to, sound files, video files, and graphic images.
Communities of Practice A community of practice is a functional, topic and situation-specific area of interest, such as project management. It is segmented into topics, i.e., project management training, and then into subtopics, i.e., training on risk management good practices. Communities of practice utilize chat rooms or discussion boards, and sometimes integrate e-learning content.
Community A community is a virtual space on the Internet where subscribers or users engage in knowledge management discussions or information sharing. It is common to find communities focus on topics of lessons learned, good practices, evaluation, measurement, research, knowledge management, and project management. Some communities can be subscribed to free of charge, and others are available on a subscription basis.
Competency A skill, knowledge, or ability that has been developed or learned is a competency.
Compliant (compliance) The extent to which a system or process adheres to or follows specified requirements.
Conclusions A conclusion is a determination reached or judgment. For example, it can be the summary report of successes and failures documented in a lessons learned report. A conclusion is intended specifically to answer a question, yes/no or true/false. Conclusions may not necessarily include recommendations. It may be preferable to handle recommendations as a separate item if at all.
Constraint A constraint is an identified factor that temporarily impacts progress. See Barrier.
Consultant A person who is external or external to the organization and is regarded as a technical expert, subject matter expert, or solutions specialist hired for a particular aspect of the project.
ContentExchange ContentExchange is a hosted, stand-alone enterprise content management system developed by Koral Technologies. It lets users organize documents by tags and share them with an enterprise.
Configuration The functional setup of hardware components and/or software in a system is a configuration.
Container A container is an object that holds and stores other objects. Regarding computer systems, it controls the way digital files read and write for the purposes of efficiency or fault tolerance.
Contingency Planning See Disaster Recovery. A just-in-case plan that considers alternatives to mitigate, transfer or accept risks.
Continuous Improvement Continuous improvement involves reviewing an organization’s goals and/or objectives systematically and/or periodically to ensure that the desired performance and/or quality is being met. A related term Continuous Process Improvement (CPI) is an ongoing effort to incrementally improve processes and procedures.
Core Competencies An identified series of skills, abilities or knowledge that enable an organization to provide the greatest level of value to its customers (internal and external) in a way that is difficult for competitors to emulate and that provides for future growth and development. Core competencies are embodied in the skills of the organization’s employees. They are developed through organizational learning, communication, and work performance. For example, a core competency could be an organization in the construction industry that has developed proven processes that streamline building one-bedroom, competitively priced, customized pre-fabricated homes and delivering them within a one-month period to anywhere in the U.S.
Crashing A project management process that takes action to decrease the total project duration after analyzing a number of alternatives to determine how to get the maximum duration compression for the least cost.
Criteria (criterion) The standards, values, measures, guidelines, or other factors used to help make a determination.
Critical Path The critical path is a project management concept that concerns the series of activities that determines the duration of a project. In a deterministic model, the critical path is usually defined as those activities with float less than or equal to a specified value, often zero. It is the longest path through the project.
Critics Individuals who comment or provide feedback about something, i.e., may be dissatisfied with the implementation of a new computer system, are critics.
Critique Critiquing something involves a constructive criticism of the effectiveness or efficiency of a policy, procedure, process, or program.
Culture Culture involves a set of accumulated and generally accepted beliefs, inherited or transferred values, and learned behaviors. An organization that has built a dynamic organizational culture is considered to have a strong set of values surrounding factors, such as responsiveness, productivity, customer focus, and diversity. Culture is very powerful because it directly impacts the way people think, react, respond, and work to situations. Culture is a driving force behind the decision making process. A culture that embraces a comprehensive review will value a lessons learned process.
Cursory Review A cursory review is a “fake evaluation.” It is casual: hasty, incomplete, incompetent, and without attention to detail. It is not planned and not thorough.
Cycle An established schedule or time period that is recurring for a particular event, i.e., preventative equipment maintenance that is performed annually.
Term Definition
Data Data is the raw material of information, instructions, knowledge, or content that serves as a basis for drawing conclusions, which is suitable for communication, interpretation, or processing by users (subscribers) or computer systems. Data can be meaningless unless it is interpreted.
Data Access The process of obtaining data from or transferring data to a storage device, register or RAM.
Data Capture Capturing data is a manual or automatic process of getting or intercepting data from a computer or person, and then storing that data.
Data Communications Data communications involves the movement of data between computers, and/or between computers and users (subscribers).
Data Clearing Clearing is the process of removing unwanted data from the cache and primary storage areas of a computer system or memory, such as removing pointers to a file. For example, clearing history of sites visited may only remove this information from one area of the user’s computer, while a near-permanent record remains intact and stored in another directory of the same user’s computer, or even on another computer system that has been monitoring the activity of the user’s computer. Other references to clearing data refer to it as a permanent process.
Data Collection Collecting data involves the systematic process of gathering, retrieving, capturing, and/or compiling data, and may be performed in an automated or manual procedure.
Data Degaussing Degaussing is a process whereby the data on the magnetic media are erased. Degaussing requires a specialized degausser device that is specifically designed and approved for the type of media being purged.
Data Dictionary A data dictionary is a collection of descriptions of data items in a data model. Data dictionaries are used by programmers to understand where a data item fits in the structure, what values it may contain, and what the data item means in real-world terms. The application of data dictionaries is important to the design of content management systems.
Data Drives Commonly referred to as jump drives are portable storage mediums. Data drive also refers to a drive that is used only to store data files (not software applications).
Data Erasure The process of permanently eliminating data files is erasure. It is not possible for the average user due to ghosting of files, and requires special software and procedures. Erasing data is a more complete process than deleting files.
Data File Any file created within a software application, i.e., a spreadsheet is a data file.
Data Migration Data migration involves application upgrades, and change management processes.
Data Mining Mining data is the function of extracting useful or desired information from large data sources. It is also referred to as knowledge discovery in databases (KDD).
Data Mobility Data mobility is secure, reliable movement of data to facilitate information sharing.
Data Purging Purging is the removal of data from a rewriteable storage media, i.e., hard drive in such a way that there is a significant degree of assurance, proportional to the sensitivity of the data, that the data may not be rebuilt through open-ended laboratory methods. The technique is to use special software that overwrites the storage medium multiple times in a prescribed pattern.
Data Remanence Remanence is the residual physical data that was supposedly deleted. After data is deleted, i.e., from a hard drive, there may be some physical characteristics that allow data to be rebuilt.
Data Resource Management Managing data resources involves the development and execution of architectures, policies, practices and procedures that properly oversee the full data lifecycle needs of an organization.
Data Transfer Transferring data involves the movement of data inside of or between computer systems.
Data Warehouse A data warehouse is a repository of an organization’s historical data and in some instances its corporate memory. It contains the data necessary to support a decision support system. A major benefit of a data warehouse is that a data analyst can perform complex queries and analysis, such as data mining.
Database A database is a base of data that has been organized and structured so that access is optimized. Databases are the foundation for document management systems.
Decision Analysis (DA) DA is the discipline that comprises the necessary theory methodology, and professional approach to address important decisions in a formal manner.
Define, Measure, Analyze, Improve, Control (DMAIC) Quality and performance improvement teams use the DMAIC methodology to identify and eliminate the causes of defects: D=Define a problem or improvement opportunity; M=Measure process performance; A=Analyze the process to determine the root causes of poor performance, determine whether the process can be improved or should be redesigned; I=Improve the process by attacking root causes; and C=Control the improved process to hold the gains. This methodology is associated with Six Sigma.
Deliverables Action items, reports, programs or other items committed to stakeholders are deliverables.
Digital Asset Digital assets include any files stored in digital format, i.e., documents, images, audio files, video files, etc. These files may be stored on a digital storage system, i.e., hard drives, optical drives, flash media, etc. Some refer to digital assets as investments in intellectual assets, intellectual property, knowledge, rights, data and information owned by an organization.
Digital Asset Management (DAM) See Digital Asset. DAM consists of effectively collecting, retrieving, annotating, cataloguing, storing, and distributing digital content. DAM allows you to efficiently manage downloading, uploading, filing, grouping, archiving, optimizing, thinning, distributing and exporting of digital content. DAM systems can reduce time, effort and costs associated with content production, while maximizing the return on investment (ROI) of digital content. The rationale for DAM concerns the expensive, time consuming, management intensive nature of distributing files.
Digital Content Delivery (DCD) DCD is the principle of allowing access to, or providing digital files in digital format. The demand for digital content delivery continues to increase as information service providers improve bandwidth capabilities. DCD can be used to broadcast documents, images, audio and video files. DCD supports the needs of distributed audiences requiring different content formats.
Digital Diary A digital diary is a software tool that enables you to create diary entries, and supports a variety of media formats, i.e., text, images, video and audio. Digital diaries have an integrated interface so that the user can access all media assets from one menu. It can help the user to manage the amount of time spent in creating diary entries. The files may be encrypted for security purposes. Digital diary files can be set to be decrypted only when you log into the program.
Digital Data File (DDF) Digital data files are stored information in binary format. Digital data files are usually stored in native format. Content stored in digital files can include text, audio content, video content, or images. Digital files can be stored on hard disk, optical disk, flash drive, etc. The term digital files, document, content or file is commonly used to refer to digital data file.
Digital Data File Management File management in digital format is also referred to as document management.
Digital Rights Management (DRM) DRM is an umbrella term referring to technologies used by publishers or copyright holders to control access to or usage of digital data or hardware, as well as to restrictions associated with specific instances of digital works or devices. The term is often confused with copy protection and technical protection measures, which refer to specific technologies that control or restrict the use and access of digital content on electronic devices. Such technologies act as components of a full-blown DRM design. The use of digital rights management has been controversial. Advocates argue it is necessary for copyright holders to prevent unauthorized duplication of their work to ensure continued revenue streams.
Digital Restrictions Management See Digital Rights Management. The Free Software Foundation suggests that the use of the word “Rights” as a part of digital rights management is misleading and suggest that people instead use the term digital restrictions management.
Digital Signature Signing a document electronically can be done by embedding a graphic that represents a person’s signature. It can also be completed by typing in the name and then clicking an “I agree.”
Disaster Recovery Disaster recovery is a coordinated activity usually managed by information technology (IT) to enable the rebuilding or reactivation of computer systems due to a disruption. Disruptions may include, but not be limited to, natural disasters, catastrophes, and malicious intent such as viruses. Disaster recovery by some organizations may be the same or direct opposite of a concept referred to as contingency planning.
Discussion Board See chat room. The primary perceived difference between a discussion board and chat room is that a discussion board does not necessarily provide for interactive or simultaneous communication between users on an Internet web address. Rather a user will post a question and a response is posted later. A discussion board may be more secure because it can be moderated and controlled by a webmaster, as compared to a chat room which is not controlled.
Display A display is another name for a computer monitor or screen, or Cathode Ray Tube (CRT).
Dissemination The process of using lessons learned information for a specific task or project.
Document A document is information, data, or a digital data file in a particular format.
Document Control Document control involves a system for controlling, managing, and executing project documentation in a uniform and orderly fashion.
Document Management (DM) DM is the orderly and agreed upon organization, distribution, storage and retrieval of documents.
Document Management System (DMS) A DMS allows for storage, retrieval and management of documents, and rapid search of information in directories, folders and files. A DMS can track changes, document versions, and offer security features. It can be set up to email documents at specific times to users (subscribers) thereby limiting the sharing of sensitive documents.
Documentation Documentation is the process of systematically collecting, recording and storing information in a permanent form so it can later be retrieved.
Documentum eRoom See EMC.
Domain A name by which a computer connected to the Internet is identified. For DNS, it can be a group of workstations and servers that share a single group name.
Downtime Downtime refers to the period of time a computer is out of order, shut down, under maintenance control and therefore not fully operational. The term downtime also refers to the lack of productivity a user experiences as a result of being unable to access needed data.
Drivers Software that controls the functionality of other software, hardware, or peripherals. The term driver also refers to factors associated with changing or impacting a given item.
Dysfunctional The perception that something is not working optimally or as expected is dysfunctional.
Dynamic Demands

Dynamic demands, a term was created by Microsoft, are those that are increasingly immediate, varied, and continuously changing. Dynamic systems are designed to enable businesses and users to meet dynamic demands with a quick and effective response.

Term Definition
Early Adopter An individual or group who embraces technology from its introduction, and who may be willing to accept, for example, computer system problems or issues in exchange for the perceived benefits of technology and innovation.
Efficiency The ratio of useful work realized to the energy or cost expended. Efficiency Factor is the measure of overall project performance used in a measurement system. It is calculated by dividing the standard time to perform the task by the actual time it took to complete the task.
Effectiveness The extent to which the goals of a project are realized, which should be clearly documented in the project plan.
Electronic Mail (Email) A message service, such as Microsoft Outlook, that uses the intranet or Internet to deliver messages in the form of text, images, audio, video or other data.
Employee Empowerment The practice of giving non-management employees the ability to make decisions regarding specific projects or initiatives is empowerment. It is associated with the practice of transfer of responsibility to the employee.
Enterprise Content Management (ECM) ECM systems are used to capture, manage, store, preserve, and deliver content and documents related to organizational processes. Enterprise Content Management can enable you to efficiently manage the capture, storage, security, revision control, retrieval, distribution, and preservation of both content and any type of document. An enterprise content management system (ECMS) is not an optional expense for large organizations, it is essential to ensure content preservation and re-usability, and the control of access to content. Content management is especially important because unstructured, ad hoc content creation leads to chaos. Content creation should not necessarily be tied to content presentation. There needs to be adequate protection of restricted content while distributing information to relevant subscribers. ECM also helps with issues associated with co-authoring of digital content being difficult, and the inability of some systems to track changes made by multiple authors.
Escalation Escalation is a procedure that involves upper level management in problem resolution.
Ethics Being ethical involves adherence to the fundamental principles, values and norms held by an organization or culture. It is the philosophy that is concerned with evaluating human action and interaction. Governing what is defined as acceptable behavior, code of conduct, morality, right and wrong, good and bad in relation to situation-specific criteria are ethical considerations.
Evaluable Evaluands that can be evaluated are evaluable.
Evaluand The thing being evaluated is the evaluand.
Evaluation The systematic determination of the merit (quality), worth (value) and/or significance (importance) of something is evaluation.
Evaluation Capacity Building (ECB) Evaluation capacity concerns the ability for an individual or organization to comprehend, utilize and transfer the determination of merit, worth, and/or significance of an evaluand.
Evaluation Methodology The process and approach that will be used to guide the evaluation, i.e., formative, summative, qualitative, quantitative, etc. is the methodology.
Evaluation Plan An evaluation plan is a proposal that describes the process that will be used to guide an evaluation. It includes an overview of the evaluand, scope of the evaluation, purpose of the evaluation, supporting research, evaluative criteria, evaluation methodology, timeline, budget, target population, stakeholders, evaluation team, values, evaluative conclusions, recommendations, and references.
Evaluation Team The evaluation team is identified in the project plan, scope of work, statement of work, and/or project team biographies. It outlines the roles and responsibilities of project team members.
Evaluative Conclusions Determinations or judgments that are arrived at as the result of the evaluation are conclusions.
Evaluative Recommendations Suggestions, comments or ideas that are given as part of the evaluation are recommendations.
Evaluator The individual who has been assigned to perform the evaluation is the evaluator.
Experiential Learning Education and learning that is primarily obtained through lived experience.
Expert One who is skilled in a particular area as the result of learning and/or experience. They are recognized as a reliable source of knowledge, skill, ability, on that issue.
Expert Systems Expert systems are a part of the artificial intelligence category. The computer is able to make decisions based on decisions it has made in the past. This model is powerful in applications, such as managing financial situations such as when to buy and sell shares on the stock market. The data stored in an expert system is called the knowledgebase. The part of the system that performs decision making tasks is the inference engine.
Expertise A person who has maintains a specialized, in-depth body of knowledge in a particular area, and is able to share or use this ability in activities where it is clearly evident.
Explicit Knowledge Knowledge or ways of knowing that can be expressed and shared in highly specified formats, such as through codification.
Term Definition
Facilitator To manage, control, organize and deliver communications. This is a common role in online communications.


An error, such as an inability to send and receive data; occurs in a computer system or network that impacts the equipment of software functionality. Failures can be temporary, permanent, minor or severe.
Fault A fault is a temporary failure that has been quickly recovered. For example, an indication that a printer is off-line and is turned back on so the error reading goes away and the document begins to print.
Fault Tolerant The capability to continue operation after hardware or software failure and without interruption indicates that the system is fault tolerant.
Feasibility The extent to which a study or project may be done practically, effectively, or efficiently.
File Archive An archive is a repository that holds files for the purpose of storage and retrieval.
File Backup Backing up files is the process of copying or saving files to a specified location for the purpose of archival and/or retrieval. Backup may be manual and/or automated.
File Compression Compressing files reduces the amount of storage data requires; specifically relates to the design of the data that enables compression. Methods include replacing blank spaces with a character count, or replacing redundant data with shorter stand-in “codes.” No matter how data is compressed, it must be decompressed before it can be used.
File Decompression Decompressing a file involves having the software application return a file to its normal state and size.
File Defragmentation Defragmenting a writeable storage medium is the process of physically reorganizing the contents of the disk in order to store data closer together in a contiguous fashion. Defragmenting a drive also attempts to create large regions of free space by compacting data files.
File Deletion Deletion describes the action of discarding data from memory or storage. When information is deleted from a storage medium, it may actually still be there, leaving a ghost file.
File Encryption The process of securing a file by encoding or scrambling so it is unreadable except by authorized users who have the de-encryption key or password.
File Explorer A file explorer is a file manager or file browser, such as Windows Explorer.
File Format The structure of data stored in a file.
File Locking To lock a file is to put a password on it.
File Maintenance Maintenance is the process of managing files from a technology perspective. It is primarily concerned with reliability and dependability of data, i.e., archiving, backing up, compressing, defragmenting, organizing, reorganizing, etc.
File Management File management is the process of developing strategies, processes, procedures and plans for how data networks, servers, directory structures, etc. will be managed.
File Name File names may be relative or absolute, e.g., the relative file name depends on the current directory (or folder), but an absolute file name refers to the same file regardless of which directory it is currently located.
File Permissions There are three specific permissions that apply to permitting files to perform specific functions. Permissions are setup by the administrator of a system. First, the read permission allows a user to read a file or directory tree. Second, the write permission allows the user to modify a file. Third, the execute permission allows the user to execute a file.
File Server A file server is a form of disk storage that hosts (or serves) files within a network.
File Sharing Sharing files is the practice of allowing files to be accessible for other users to access. This is a common practice in a home network where family members may share their main “C” local disk drive.
File Size How large the file is in terms of bytes.
File Sorting Sorting files is the process of selecting the order of fields.
File Structure The organization of files in directories and subdirectories refers to structure of the files.
File Suffix See File Extension.
File Transfer Transferring files is the process of copying or moving data from one computer to another, or to another location on the same system.
File Type The type of file refers to the application that was used to create it, i.e., .doc file is MS Word.
Filter Filtering is a process that executes a function in response to a user request to deliver only relevant pre-defined information. For example, selecting income level as a filter in a database query will limit the display of records to a specified income level.
Forum A forum is an online discussion group where participants with common interests communicate.
Framework A framework is a logical structure for classifying and organizing complex information.
Frequently Asked Questions (FAQs) FAQs are a list of common questions with answers.
Term Definition
Garbage In Garbage Out ( GIGO) The concept behind GIGO is that if the input data is wrong or inaccurate, the output data will be inaccurate or wrong. GIGO is often the problem with data entered by human into computer systems.
Term Definition
Harmonization Harmonizing systems is the process of increasing the compatibility and functionality of software, hardware and business processes across an organization with the goal of improving and/or enhancing processes and/or performance. It can be distinguished from standardization which is primarily the process associated with uniformity.
Hierarchical A hierarchy is a form of document or file structure, also known as a tree structure, where all elements except the root have parents, and all elements may or may not have children.
Human Capital The identified knowledge, skills and abilities of people in an organization.
Human Capital Management Human capital management involves realizing the investment an organization makes in its employees, and focusing on productivity per employee.
Human Factors The study of issues that impact humans working with computers, i.e., display design, input devices, etc. Usability of office equipment and ergonomics are also related topics.
Hunch A hunch, also called a gut feeling is an educated guess or intuition, which is not based on known facts that the outcome of something will end up being a certain way. It is not uncommon for organizations to make decisions based partially on hunches.
Hypothesis A hypothesis is a temporary explanation of an observation that can be tested through evaluation.
Term Definition
Idea Management Managing ideas is a collective and organized knowledge management activity that uses a repository for sharing thoughts, concepts, visions, etc. and allowing for information interchange.
Information Information is the product of data. Information is extracted from a compilation of data.
Information and Communication Technologies (ICT) This refers to the supporting infrastructure of systems that support things such as project management and knowledge management.
Information Lifecycle Management (ILM) ILM is a powerful IT strategy based on the simple fact that all information created is not created equal. ILM requires different levels of accessibility and protection. ILM is most efficiently integrated into any organization in three phases. Phase 1 involves establishing a tiered architecture for ILM; phase 2 involves bringing ILM and tiered storage to a key application; and phase 3 involves extending ILM across multiple applications.
Information Mapping Converting large amounts of to text to smaller amounts of text using tables and formatting.
Information Technology (IT) IT includes hardware and/or software interconnected systems that are used in the storage, retrieval, communication, distribution, management, or maintenance of information.
Infrastructure Optimization (IO) IO is an approach introduced by Microsoft to maximize network efficiency.
Instance An instance is a particular occurrence of an object, refers to one example in a search of how many times something may appear. When reviewing the uniqueness of customer types, instances are an important consideration to keep in mind. Each instance has a unique handle that distinguishes it from other instances of the same type.
Instant Messaging A form of email which involves quick and short communication between two or more users who are all online at the same time.
Institute for Supply Management (ISM) The largest international procurement professional association specializing in education and certification for procurement and purchasing professionals.
Institution See Organization.
Integration Integration involves merging, unifying, or combining hardware, software and peripherals so they appear to users as one seamless, highly functioning system. Integration is a preferred approach when multi-vendor solutions are being deployed within or across a network.
Intellectual Property The rights of the author under copyright law designed to protect proprietary knowledge such as any published works of literature in whatever form.
Intelligent Information Management (IIM) IIM is a component of information infrastructure that helps manage digital information in all its forms. It can be setup to automatically discover information and assess its importance. IIM boasts to help lower costs, reduce risks, and create new uses for information.
Interdepartmental Procedure (IDP) IDPs are similar to SOPs with the primary difference being they are used within a department.
Interface Hardware and software connectivity that enables systems to share information; also refers to appearance of a display and fields in a database program.
**Isomorphic Learning Universally applicable lessons that have obtained an analysis of factors.
Term Definition
Java An object-oriented programming language and environment developed by Sun Microsystems. Java is an underlying application that provides much of the intelligence for e-commerce and multimedia functionality on the Internet.
Job Description A job description is documentation of a person’s job title, roles, responsibilities, authority level and related job duties. It outlines desired education, work experience, and competencies. It may also include projected career path, reporting structure, and related information.
Joint Committee on Standards for Educational Evaluation The Joint Committee on Standards for Educational Evaluation was founded in 1975 to develop standards for educational evaluation. Originally initiated by the American Educational Research Association, the American Psychological Association, and the National Council on Measurement in Education, the Joint Committee now includes many other organizations in its membership. AEA is one of those organizations, and has a representative to the Joint Committee. The Joint Committee has developed several sets of standards pertaining to educational evaluation, and this site provides a link to a summary of those standards below. AEA has not formally adopted any of these standards, but it does support the Joint Committee’s work in developing evaluation standards. Further information about the Joint Committee’s work can be obtained from The Joint Committee on Standards for Educational Evaluation, The Evaluation Center, Western Michigan University, Kalamazoo, MI 49008-5178.
Joint Committee on Standards: Program Evaluation The Joint Committee Program Evaluation Standards include: utility, feasibility, propriety and accuracy. The goal of Utility Standards is to ensure that an evaluation will serve the information needs of intended users. The goal of Feasibility Standards is to ensure that an evaluation will be realistic, prudent, diplomatic, and frugal. The goal of Propriety Standards is to ensure that an evaluation will be conducted legally, ethically, and with due regard for the welfare of those involved in the evaluation, as well as those affected by its results. The goal of Accuracy Standards is to ensure that an evaluation will reveal and convey technically adequate information about the features that determine worth or merit of the program being evaluated.
Jump Drive A jump drive, also called thumb drive, is a removable storage medium that can store gigabytes of data.
Jurisdiction A jurisdiction is an artificial boundary that is established to help identify areas of responsibility. If something is outside of one’s jurisdiction, they may be less likely to impact decisions regarding system implementation.
Term Definition
KM Solution The supporting hardware, software, etc. that make up the KM system.
Key Performance Indicators (KPI) KPIs are financial and/or non-financial measurements used to quantify objectives to reflect strategic performance of an organization; used in Business Intelligence to assess the state of the business and to recommend a course of action. Monitoring KPIs in real-time is known as business activity monitoring; frequently used to value difficult to measure activities such as benefits of leadership development, training, service, technical support, and customer satisfaction. KPIs are typically tied to an organization’s strategy. KPIs differ depending on the nature of the organization; they help to measure progress towards their organizational goals, especially toward difficult to measure knowledge-based processes. A key part of a measurable objective, made up of a direction, KPI, benchmark, target and time frame.
Keyword A keyword is a term or phrase used as an identifier. Search engines use keywords to locate information on the Internet. Keywords are the essential ingredient to any effective content management system.
Kilobytes Per Second (KPS) A unit of measurement for transfer rates in 1000 bytes per second.
Knowledge Obtained through observation, learned experience, and transfer of information.
Knowledge Asset Stored knowledge available for access or use is a knowledge asset.
Knowledge Currency Units (KCUs) KCUS are a rewards and recognition system that are tied to the use of an organization’s knowledge management system. KCUs are earned when employees contribute or use knowledge objects. Digital gift certificates can be sent upon established contribution levels.
Knowledge Domain A knowledge domain is where knowledge is stored, i.e., a server.
Knowledge Integration (KI) KI is a synthesis of knowledge of different individuals to create group level knowledge.
Knowledge Objects Knowledge objects are tools, utilities and resources that are used to access an organization’s knowledge management system.
Knowledge Management (KM) A primary objective of KM is to arrange, orchestrate, and organize an environment in which people are invited and facilitated to apply, develop, share, combine and consolidate knowledge. KM refers to a range of practices used by organizations to identify, create, represent, and distribute knowledge for reuse and learning across the organization. KM applications/ tools are used to tie organizational objectives to the achievement of specific business outcomes such as improved performance, competitive advantage, and higher levels of innovation. Some of the most common reasons that makes having a knowledge management solution imperative include volumes of unorganized unsearchable knowledge, knowledge transfer is time consuming, email overload due to knowledge transfer by email, secure sharing of sensitive knowledge among limited people, loss of knowledge when people leave or hardware devices fail and ongoing security and backup of knowledge.
Knowledge Management Maturity (KMM) A KMM is a tool for assessing and improving KM maturity in an organization.
Knowledge Management Summit A summit is a conference where good practices on KM are shared.
Knowledge Management Success Ingredients The eight defined knowledge management success ingredients called the 8Cs are connectivity, content, community, culture, capacity, cooperation, commerce, and capital.
Knowledge Mapping A process of categorizing knowledge as information or association; usually put into a matrix or database as part of the mapping process.
Knowledge Networking The concept of sharing information with or between organizations for mutual benefit.
Knowledge Networking Environmental Assessment Tool (KNEAT) KNEAT is used by Johnson and Johnson to assess their KM environment via surveys about leadership behavior, individual behavior, peer behavior, organizational expectations, and IT tools.
Knowledge Marketplace Knowledge marketplaces are Internet sites where subscribers can share, purchase, buy or exchange knowledge on specific material.
Knowledge Nugget The smallest piece of information in a knowledge management process worth reporting.
Knowledge Spider A search interface that can search across people, teams, events and activities.
Knowledge Portal A web address where knowledge can be accessed.
Knowledge Transfer Implies moving knowledge from one place to another.
Knowledgebase A base of knowledge or the sum of knowledge that has been accumulated and is available for dissemination to the organization through their data management systems.
Knowledge Workplace A virtual location where knowledge can be accessed and shared.
Knowledge Worker

Individuals assigned to or a part of knowledge management projects or initiatives.

Term Definition
Learning The acquisition of skills knowledge or abilities based upon knowing.
Learning Management System (LMS) Also referred to as Learning Content Management System provides a user-friendly database interface for recording, delivering, managing, and tracking an organization’s learning activities, i.e., training records for each employee.
Learning Oriented Evaluation Related to evaluation and organizational learning. As process evaluations are used to promote growth and development of the organization, lessons learned are a tool of learning oriented evaluation.
Lessons Learned (LL) LL contain data, information or knowledge obtained from the implementation and systematic review of a project, portfolio, program, process, policy, product or performance. LL can be used to identify outcomes in specific dimensions. LL can be conducted summatively to determine results such as accountability or formatively to plan for improvement. A LL is ways of knowing derived from observation, experience or problem solving. LL are evaluative knowledge (EK) because they involve a determination of merit (quality), worth (value) or significance (importance).
Lessons Learned Checklist (LLC) See checklist. While there are many generic published guidelines on conducting a lessons learned an effective LL requires a situation-specific checklist.
Lessons Learned Project Status Meeting A project status meeting is one of the regular meetings held by members of the project team who are engaged in the lessons learned process.
Lessons Learned Project Team A lessons learned project team is comprised of a project manager, subject matter experts, participantswho were involved in the project or initiative, and stakeholders.
Lessons Learned Focus Group Session A group of people selected for their relevance to an evaluation engaged by a trained facilitator in a series of discussions designed for sharing insights, ideas, and observations on a topic of concern.
Lessons Learned Data Collection Instrument Tools such as paper or web-based surveys, interview questionnaires, focus group responses, researcher observation, field notes, and third party observation are instruments that can be used to collect lessons learned information.
Lessons Learned Project Plan A lessons learned project plan is a formal document that is prepared by the project team. It describes who, how, when, where, why a lessons learned will be conducted, and identifies key dates, milestones, tasks and deliverables that will drive the project.
Lessons Learned Interview An interview may be highly structured or semi-structured.
Lessons Learned Action Plan Strategies that an organization proposes in response to the results of a lessons learned.
Lessons Learned Database See database. A lessons learned database should be optimized to store lessons learned data.
Term Definition
Meeting Minutes Minutes are the written record of a meeting, conversation, or communication. They provide details on discussion topics and action items. They are designed to promote accountability.
Meta-analysis Meta-analysis is a quantitative method of summarizing previous research using statistical methods. Meta-analysis reviews and combines the results from multiple studies. It is the process of aggregating findings and relies heavily on numbers. The combined results from multiple studies can sometimes produce a stronger conclusion than can be provided by any single study, i.e., smoking and second-hand smoke can cause cancer. It differs from metaevaluation in that its purpose is not the determination of merit, worth and significance.
Meta-data Data that is used to describe other data.
Meta-evaluation A metaevaluation (also spelled meta-evaluation and meta evaluation) is an assessment of an evaluation. It seeks to determine adherence to standards of sound evaluation using guiding principles, such as the Joint Committee Program Evaluation Standards of utility, feasibility, propriety and accuracy.
Metrics Metrics can be quantitative and/or qualitative, and are measurements taken over time that monitor and assess an organization’s performance against specific criteria, i.e., sales increase.
Microsoft NetMeeting A meeting that is conducted from PC to PC (node to node) that allows those connected to view the on-screen displays and access related content. Net meetings work efficiently with a set number of users, and must be facilitated in a way that one user is given primary control of hosting the session. Net meetings typically require the use of a teleconference to clarify points; however, a chat window is available if a teleconference is not a preferred option.
Microsoft SharePoint Portal Server SharePoint Portal Server is a collaborative portal application based on the Windows SharePoint Services platform. It has version control, document approval and a basic search facility.
Milestone A significant event in the project, usually completion of a major deliverable.
Misevaluation When evaluators perform poorly, inadequately, unethically, untruthfully, and/or fail to meet evaluation objectives results in a misevaluation.
Multi-tasking The capability of working on more than one task at a time or processing multiple tasks virtually simultaneously.

A system that supports more than one user, such as input devices tied into a central CPU.

Term Definition
Narrative A format of creating lessons in which the information is descriptive and composed in sentence format.
Natural Language Processes (NLP) Involves the integration of computer science and linguistics to create hardware and software that recognizes human speech and handwriting.
Notification Notifying is the process of communicating the status of a system action. For example, auto-notification may be set to “on” each time the system receives a request for a report to let the system administrator know what report was requested.
Non-Native Format See Native Format.
Notation Adding a comment to an existing document.
Note See Email.Notes are typically shorter than memos.
Term Definition
Objectives Clearly defined and agreed upon expectations that focus project direction.
Observation Techniques such as recognizing, seeing, hearing, participating, noting and recording of facts or occurrences, often involving measuring with instruments, such as a video camera.
Obsolescence The loss of value, usefulness, functionality, compatibility resulting from advances in technology and the passage of time.
Off-line Something that is not presently active or available for access in a system; in some contexts may also refer to a system, which is down for maintenance or inoperable.
Object Linking and Embedding (OLE) OLE is a method of linking information between software applications. When the spreadsheet is updated in MS Excel, then it is automatically updated in the MS Word document.
Online Analytical Processing (OLAP) Capability for databases and related processes to handle more complex queries than traditional relational databases.
On-line Help See Help.
Opacity Refers to the amount of transparency in an image, such as a watermark.
Optical Character Recognition (OCR) A scanner with the proper software can capture, recognize and translate printed alphanumeric characters into machine readable text. OCR software exports the captured text directly into a computer.

Optical Storage

The means of storing or archiving data on optical discs such as CDs or DVDs. Optical storage is commonly referred to as digital storage (digital data storage).
Organizational Learning The ability of an organization to capture knowledge, apply lessons learned from past projects, adapt to change and apply information to future projects. The goal is to improve organizational performance.
Term Definition
Paradigm Shift A different way of looking at something and/or doing something.
Performance The measurement of achievement used to assess a specific aspect of a project.
Personal Information Management (PIM) A software application that keeps track of personal information such as agenda, address book, notepad, and business contact information.
Performance Improvement A systematic process of observing, reviewing, analyzing, and evaluating human performance based upon defined values and criteria. The next step involves identifying specific areas for improvement. The final step involves designing, developing and delivering effective and efficient interventions to close performance gaps, which may include training or redefining processes and procedures; requires qualitative and/or quantitative analysis, such as the return on investment.
Performance Improvement Plan (PIP) See performance improvement. The PIP is the official project document that addresses improving performance.
Performance Management In the context of computers and systems, refers to effective and/or efficient use of software and hardware. This is accomplished by observing, reviewing, monitoring, and evaluating, performance indicators such as response time, resource utilization, demand and contention, and queue lengths. In the context of people, refers to optimizing the effectiveness and efficiency of human resources to ensure they meet organizational expectations.
Performance Measurement Measuring project performance relates to progress achieved to cost status. The method identifies whether cost variances are due to differences in the value of the work being performed, i.e. too expensive or less than budgeted. Based upon this, it is possible to assess whether a project is ahead, on or behind budget and whether the trend is likely to continue. An earned value analysis (EVA) is typically performed to help make this determination. EVA involves an analysis of project progress where the actual money budgeted and spent on deliverables is compared to the value of the work actually achieved. A positive EVA means that the project is performing well; negative EVA means that financial resources are not being managed to expectation.
Performance Needs Assessment (PNA) A PNA can help identify performance issues, both positive and negative. It can help identify gaps, problems or deficiencies as well as overachievement, non-challenging tasks and need for growth in a role or responsibility. It is an integral part of the performance improvement process. A PNA can help identify performance problems, and with the integration of evaluation, can better determine the most appropriate interventions to improve performance. Information collected during the PNA can be useful for different stages of training and documentation. Here are the 4 Ds to conducting a PNA: (1) Define desired performance. Ask, “What is the worker (or system) is expected to do?” “How well is the worker (or system) expected to perform,” “Under what circumstances,” “How often” (2) Describe actual performance. The difference between desired or anticipated performance and actual performance is called the performance gap; (3) Design and conduct a root cause analysis to find out why there is a performance gap. Gather information from individuals (or systems); and (4) Determine appropriate intervention(s) to improve performance. If the cause is insufficient knowledge (or a slow system), enhancing training (or upgrading to a faster processor) may be the appropriate intervention.
Personal Digital Assistant (PDA) A mobile computing device that is capable of accessing the Internet.
Phenomenon Any event classified as real, but unusual or unique. It may encompass something that someone has done that is not repeatable by others. It may be classified as tacit knowledge something that you can do, but cannot teach, or even describe how you do it.
Pilot system A way of moving from an old computer system to a new one. The new system is tried out in a small area of an organization. If it works as desired then implementation can continue.
Plus R/Minus R Positive Reinforcement (+R/-R) +R/-R is an internationally recognized approach to improving performance through positive or negative reinforcement.
Poll A survey technique commonly used in email programs, such as MS Outlook, to collect responses to a given question. Users typically click on a yes or no voting button.
Post-Mortem A common term used synonymously with conducting a lessons learned.
Post Project Appraisal A common term used synonymously with conducting a lessons learned.
Post Project Audit See Project Audit.
PRINCE2 Project management methodology. PRINCE is an acronym for Projects In Controlled Environments. It is described as a structured method for effective project management.
Problematic An issue that has been identified to cause failure or have negative impacts.
Profile A completed entry typically filled out through the use of a template.
Program A group of related projects managed in a coordinated way, and may include ongoing work.
Project A temporary endeavor undertaken to create a unique product, service, or result.
Project Audit An independent systematic examination, review, and/or evaluation of a project’s status, issues, quality of deliverables, and conformance with standards and the organization’s processes and procedures. The result is an audit report with findings, conclusions, and recommendations. Project audits may be performed by independent third parties.
Project Board See Project Steering Committee.
Project Boundary An artificial line that defines how the project interacts with other projects.
Project Change Control See Change Management. Change control is an approved change to a project due to a scope of work change or a special circumstance on the project.
Project Charter A formal document issued by senior management that authorizes the existence of the project; it provides the project manager with the authority to apply organizational resources to project activities.
Project Complexity Complexity is the extent to which a project involves a large number of subprojects, people, processes, procedures, etc. Project complexity is typically a reflection of the number of work packages, deliverables, and people required to carry them out.
Project Documentation The documentation that describes what was planned in the project and how it was actually performed. It includes management plans, schedules, significant e-mails, issues logs, etc.
Project Evaluation A comprehensive assessment of the performance of a project. It looks at the project’s merit, worth, and/or significance.
Project Justification See Business Case.
Project Life Cycle (PLC)

The PLC or Project Cycle is initiating, planning, executing, monitoring/closing, and closing. Initiation begins with a project concept that has been requested. Planning starts with an idea and ends when the entire project idea has been documented. Executing is following through with what it says to do in the plan. Monitoring/Controlling is making sure through interaction, observation and oversight (monitoring) that the work being executed complies with the project plan, and putting into place interventions (controlling) when necessary. Closing begins when deliverables are accepted by the sponsor (and or stakeholders). Closing involves ensuring that all the necessary paperwork is completed, i.e., contract administration and sign off.

Project Management (PM) Application of knowledge, skills, tools, and techniques to project activities to meet the project requirements in adherence to the project plan; considered to be something undertaken, usually to produce a deliverable, and is temporary, unique and done for a specific purpose. PM is a discipline (a branch of knowledge requiring learning) involving project communications management, project cost management, project human resources management, project integration management, project procurement management, project quality management, project risk management, project scope management, and project time management. It is a responsibility (an assigned role), a process (initiating, planning, executing, monitoring/controlling, and closing), and a competency (skill or ability).
Project Management Certificate An acknowledgement that a participant has taken a project management course or understands the fundamentals of project management. It typically does not imply competency in project management.
Project Management Certification Involves receiving a credential based upon meeting pre-defined criteria. There are several professional associations that offer project management certification, such as PMI. PMI requires that someone who receives their project management professional certification meet criteria, such as 4500 hours of project management experience, a bachelor’s degree from an accredited university, successful completion of 35 project management education hours (equivalent to one graduate level semester course), and passing of a project management exam. PMI’s certification requires membership in the association, and annual certification maintenance of 20 education hours per year. There are a number of other professional associations that offer project management certification. Great care needs to be exercised before choosing an association’s certification as a credential. Some of these associations do not have stringent requirements, some associations wave industry standard certification requirements by allowing for more years of project management experience, and other associations appear to be more interested in collecting fees associated with the cost of certification.
Project Management Institute (PMI) PMI is the world’s largest project management professional association specializing in education and certification. They were founded in 1969 and currently have approximately 250,000 members, have 200+ chapters and in 150+ countries around the world. PMI’s mission is to promote professionalism in project management. They offer several certification programs. The most popular Project Management Professional (PMP) has stated criteria, such as 4500 of project management experience and a bachelor’s degree. The also offer a Certified Associate in Project Management (CAP), Program Management Professional (PgMP). For organizations they offer OPM3.
Project Management Knowledge Areas See PMBOK. (1) Project Communications Management is a subset of project management that includes the processes required to ensure timely and appropriate generation, collection and dissemination, storage and ultimate disposition or project information. It consists of communications planning, information distribution, performance reporting, and administrative closure; (2) Project Cost Management is a subset of project management that includes the processes required to ensure the project is completed within the approved budget and consists of resource planning, cost estimating, cost budgeting, and cost control; (3) Project Human Resources Management is a subset of project management that includes effective use of people involved with the project and consists of organizational planning staff acquisition, and team development; (4) Project Integration Management is a subset of project management that includes processes required to ensure the various elements of the project are properly coordinated and consists of project plan development, project plan execution, and integrated change control; (5) Project Procurement Management is a subset of project management that includes processes required to acquire goods and services to attain project scope from outside the performing organization and consists of procurement planning, solicitation planning, solicitation, source selection, contract administration, and contract closeout; (6) Project Quality Management is a subset of project management that includes processes required to ensure the project will satisfy the needs for which it was undertaken and consists of quality planning, quality assurance, and quality control; (7) Project Risk Management is systematic process of identifying, analyzing, and responding to project risk and includes maximizing the probability and consequences of positive events and minimizing the probability and consequences of events adverse to the project objectives. It includes the processes of risk management planning, risk identification, qualitative risk analysis, quantitative risk analysis, risk response planning, and risk monitoring and control. (8) Project Scope Management is a subset of project management that includes processes required to ensure the project includes all of the work required—and only the work required—to complete the project successfully. It consists of initiation, scope planning, scope definition, scope verification, and scope change control. (9) Project Time Management is a subset of project management that includes processes required to ensure timely completion of the project and consists of activity definition, activity sequencing, activity duration estimating, schedule development, and schedule control.
Project Management Life Cycle (PMLC) The PMLC (which is often confused with project life cycle) refers to the development phases that a project can go through. For example, the DCTTR methodology (Design-Code-Test-Train-Release) or EDBTL methodology (Evaluate-Design-Build-Test-Launch), are a PMLC. Each phase of the PMLC, i.e., Design in the DCTTR methodology, can be thought of as an independent project that has its own complete project life cycle (initiating, planning, executing, monitoring/controlling, and closing) and its own deliverable.
Project Management Maturity (PMM) See OPM3.
Project Management Office (PMO) Responsible for management of a program. The PMO sets standards for project management and ensures a consistent methodology across all projects. A PMO may vary in size and virtually support project management, program management, and/or portfolio management.
Project Management Process Groups See PMBOK. There are five process group areas: (1) Initiation, is the process of preparing for, assembling resources and getting the project started and may apply to any level of a project (or subproject)—program, project, phase, activity, or task; (2) Planning, is the process of identifying the means, resources and actions necessary to accomplish an objective; (3) Executing, is the period where the actual work of creating the project’s deliverables is carried out; (4) A two-part process called Monitoring/ Controlling. Monitoring involves the capture, analysis, and reporting of project progress, usually as compared to the project plan, and controlling involves keeping in order a project’s time, resources, quality, and so forth. (5) Closing, involves acceptance of the project by the project sponsor, completion of project records, final revision and issue of documentation to reflect the retention of essential project documentation for historical record keeping.
Project Management Professional (PMP) Study Group A project management professional study group, such as the one recommended by the Project Management Institute, focuses primarily on helping participants obtain project management training and certification. Participants are required to have 35 education hours to sit for PMI’s project management professional (PMP) exam. There are other prerequisites, such as 4500 project management experience hours, a bachelor’s degree, and membership in the association. Study groups are an effective alternative to instructor led courses because they require more active participation because the format for presentation is delivered by the participants.
Project Phases See Project Management Process Groups.
Project Plan Defines the dates, milestones, tasks, dependencies and deliverables that will ensure the success of the project. It defines who is responsible for doing what and includes when tasks need to be completed, how they will be completed, where they will be completed, and why specific items have priority. Project plans fail to a lack of clarity. There are far too many supplemental emails that attempt to fix problems not included in the project plan.
Project Program Management Involves related projects (that may be executed over a broad period of time), which share broad goals, to which the individual projects contribute.
Project Portfolio Management Portfolio management of projects are projects that do not share the same objectives. Portfolio project management is complex because goal, deliverables, timeframes etc. are different.
Project Review See Lessons Learned. A goal of a project review encompasses going over the team’s ideas for improving project performance for future endeavors. By allowing the team to share their ideas and soliciting final comments from the sponsor (and stakeholders where appropriate) before the project closeout report is written, the team gets the benefits of reflection, and creates a culture where final recommendations can be agreed upon. There are four steps involved in a basic project review: (1) review the project plan, which involves the executive summary of the project plan along with any approved changes to the project plan; (2) involves the results of deliverables, the approval process, associated risks, team composition, schedule, staff time allocation, budget, and project reports; (3) concerns discussing with the sponsor (and stakeholders as appropriate) the lessons the team learned; and (4) involves the team’s ideas for improvement if the information is reusable (formative), or if not reusable because there is no perceived or known value in reusability, but only accountability, bringing closure to project outcome (summative).
Project Risk Risk concerns the probability that an event or action may affect or impact the project positively or negatively. For example, the construction of other buildings at a site could positively impact the future value of proposed office space. Agreeing to lease the property over a 20-year period may not be a good decision if the projected lease rate will increase in that area due to unanticipated expansion. Risk analysis involves a systematic review of the uncertainty associated with the research, development, and production of a product, program, process, or procedure. Strategies used to deal with risk include: mitigation (reducing or removing risk), transference (insuring or finding another party willing to accept part of full responsibility) and acceptance (just agreeing to deal with it). A method of classifying risks according to the amount of information available is: known, known-unknown, and unknown-unknown.
Project Schedule Planned dates for starting and completing activities and milestones; requires timelines for the project in one or more of the following forms: milestone, deliverables, activity, Gantt, and timeline.
Project Scope A description of the project that includes information on what deliverables will be created and what criteria customers will use to judge whether or not the deliverable will meet the stakeholder requirements.
Project Steering Committee A project board is a body to which the project manager and team are accountable for achieving the project objectives. The project sponsor may be sufficient to replace the project board if the sponsor is located high enough in the organization or the project is small enough.
Project Summaries See lessons learned. Project summaries vary in format and may include a project overview, results, lessons learned, etc.
Project Team The typical project team consists of the full-time (dedicated) and part-time and/or contracted (temporary) resources assigned to work on project deliverables. The project is usually led by the project lead, project team lead or project manager. Depending upon the type of organizational structure, the project manager will have more or less authority. In a functional organization, the functional manager will be in control. In a balanced matrix environment, the project manager and functional manager share control, and in a strong matrix environment, the project manager will maintain greater control. In a projectized organization, almost everything is a project.
Project Termination Refers to project closure as the result of changes to project scope, budget or other factors.
Project Uniformity Refers to how consistent the project is when compared or contrasted to other projects that have been delivered within the organization, and/or by other organizations. Projects are unique, but they still need to be consistent in their approach to ensure success.
Term Definition
Quality An attribute, characteristic, or value. Because quality means very different things to people it is imperative that it is operationally defined in context.
Qualitative Analysis Qualitative analysis is based on observation, professional judgment, experience, investigation, questioning or similar methods. It is an analysis that attempts to determine the nature of things, attributes, values, behaviors, impacts being measured. It seeks to find the things which are tangible and intangible. Qualitative research is said to be exploratory and look at why and how. Qualitative reports are generally narrative in form, but can use some graphics for presentation.
Quantitative Analysis Analysis using quantitative methods involves using mathematical and/or numerical representation of data for the purpose of describing the item under study. For example, in a training scenario, analyzing training participants’ scores on a test can be a quantitative approach. Quantitative approaches use numbers, amounts, values, percentages, ratios, portions, etc. in its description of the phenomena. Because of the primary need to present measurable results, the use of statistics is usually heavily employed in quantitative analysis. A display of graphs, charts and tables is also associated with quantitative reports. Quantitative research is said to be conclusive and look at what, where and when.
Query A manual entry by a user who enters a character, word, phrase or wildcard representing the information a user seeks from search engines and directories. The search engine subsequently attempts to locate the requested information within directories or files.
Quorum The minimum number of participants (commonly voting board members) that must be present before a decision can be made.
Term Definition
Recommendations Suggestions based on an assessment or review of an item.
Record A row in a database table. A record is a set of related information about one item or individual.
Records Retention Pertains to the assignment of a document life-time to a class of records.
Recovery The attempt to restore parts or all of a system’s information due to a failure or error.
Re-evaluation Re-evaluation is doing an evaluation again. It is essentially a re-assessment or re-analysis of data or information to clarify findings. It may involve reexamining evaluation questions.

See Reputable.

Repository Also referred to as depository, is a central place where data is stored for safe keeping and maintained. A repository is a place for holding data. There are different types of repositories. Repositories are classified as digital (stored on a computer) or other. Other repositories include paper copies or other media that may be used to store information, i.e., photographs, microfilm, audio cassette tapes, etc. A repository can be a location that is directly accessible to the user (subscriber) without having to travel across a network. Repository services are typically provided for ease of access, redundancy, safety, security, recovery, dependability, reliability, integrity, naming standards, and a wide variety of other management functions.
Requirements Document See Statement of Work; a formal planning document approved by the sponsor and project manager, it establishes the framework for the project, clearly outlining requirements and expectations.
Resource Management Plan, provision, monitor, and model your information infrastructure to improve service levels and optimize resource utilization.
Results Driven Incremental Methodology (RDI) Pertains to knowledge management systems deployment. Each phase of the project builds upon lessons learned from the previous phase.
Root Cause The most fundamental reason for the failure or process, program, or procedure. In Continuous Process Improvement (CPI) a root cause is the most practical and explainable reason for a failure. Elimination of the root cause leads to the elimination of the failure.
Term Definition
Scenario A narrative that describes a user’s interaction with a computer, i.e., expectations, actions and reactions. In some respects this may be referred to as a use case, which breaks down system requirements into user-defined functions; each use case is a series of steps performed by a user. In simpler terms, scenario may also refer to example, situation, or specific case.
Scorecard See Balanced Scorecard.
Search Engine A tool that allows you to locate information within a directory on a system (storage media) or within a file, such as a term.
Secure Online File Storage(SOFS) SOFS can be used to store your electronic documents and general files online for always-available access from any location. Online File Storage Tools are used to keep files safe and secure, and is a great way to save your files when you want to rest assured that they will not be deleted inadvertently, stolen or lost. Offline Storage can lack security, CDs get corrupt, Hard disks can fail, virus attacks can claim all data. Moreover, tracking changes manually is time consuming, distribution and access is difficult, emailing large files is difficult, and finding files in a large set is difficult.
Self-Evaluation This describes the activity of performing an internal assessment. Evaluation as a process is loosely defined, and may lack structure. A simple list of things to continue and things to improve may be identified; however, this can not be confused with a robust formative evaluation process.
Session The time that is spent on-line during a specified period of time; session length is sometimes defined by the system administrator. Some sessions, such as online chat are left up to the user. Some sessions are segmented. For example, an on-online discussion at 10:00 am may have several sessions (locations or areas), commonly referred to as chat rooms.
Simulation The process of imitating a situation, such as steps to recover a network.
Sponsor Person who has oversight for the project, i.e., owner, or financier.
Sponsorship See Sponsor. Obtaining support for upper level management.
Stagnation See Analysis Paralysis.
Standard Operating Procedure (SOP) Document how a business should operate and/or function in order to remain compliant.
Store To store data is to write it to a medium for later retrieval or transfer.
Storage Available capacity to hold data on a medium, i.e., hard disk.
Story-Telling A narrative form of describing lessons learned by giving a related example to make the situation more descriptive and relevant. Story-telling may be fact or fiction.
Stakeholders Individuals or organizations that are actively involved in the project, or whose interests may be positively or negatively affected as a result of project completion.
Strengths, Weaknesses, Opportunities, and Threats Analysis (SWOT) A process to determine Strengths, Weaknesses, Opportunities, and Threats.
Subevaluation A subset or part of the main evaluation. In other words separate, but inter-related evaluation and/or evaluation activities. A subevalatuion is the key element in the determination of merit, worth, and/or significance. For example, program cost may be a subevaluation.
Subject Matter Expert (SME) Content experts for a specific item or activity on a project; may be called on to be part of a project team to perform testing or provide input into a specific item.
Survey See Poll. Surveying is the process of collecting information from individuals or systems for the purpose of aggregating the data to draw conclusions.
Term Definition
Tacit Knowledge Knowledge or ways of knowing that is internal or personal. It may be evidenced by skills or abilities.
Team Development (stages) A 4-step process: (1) forming, (2), storming, (3) norming, and (4) performing.
Teleconference A phone based conference using a form of telecommunications.
Template A dummy publication (also referred to as boilerplate) that acts as a model for the structure and general layout of another publication.
Testing There are many types of testing processes associated with project management. The best process is conducted in accordance with an approved verification plan and approved test procedures. In some instances, tests are best conducted by an independent organization and witnessed by a representative of the sponsoring organization for compliance with test procedure and verification plan. An acceptance test procedure is a detailed document that outlines the instructions for set-up, operation, and evaluation of tests. An alpha test is a test which is the first test conducted primarily by developers and subject matter experts. Alpha-phase testing attempts to identify inaccuracies and discrepancies; beta-phase test involves system users. It is commonly referred to as user acceptance testing. It addresses issues of feature, function and benefit.
Total Quality Management (TQM) A management philosophy that attempts to implement a quality improvement program, process, or procedure.
Trade-Off Analysis Involves selecting one option or another. The primary reasons for selecting an item are based upon a specific criteria, i.e., cost, time to replace, reliability, etc.
Transcribe To write out in full details, i.e., verbatim the statements made during a communication, i.e., meeting which comes from a recorded source, i.e., audio tape.
Transcript See Transcribe.
Triangulation Using more than one method to study the same thing. For example, if you were interested in people’s attitudes toward internet usage. You could observe how many hours they spend surfing the web, or you could check the web counter.
Triple Constraint The term used to describe the three key project objectives that must be accomplished, which include time, cost and scope. The diagram is sometimes depicted with quality in the center.
Trust Choice an individual has to place confidence, faith or belief in something; whereas dependence may not be a choice. You may have to depend on someone, but not trust them. This is important in project management where trust is an important virtue.
Term Definition
User Acceptance Testing (UAT) There are two stages to UAT. During alpha testing users test the features and functionality of the new system under controlled conditions. They may be observed by the system developers. Users have to determine if the system meets or exceeds the specifications and their expectations. Next, beta testing is carried out by a different set of users who are given the new software to try. Feedback from seta testers may uncover errors or areas of functionality that may be lacking or missing in the system.
User Forum A group of application software users that collaborate online and share hints on how to get the most use out of the program.
User Friendly Usually refers to software applications, and is considered intuitive, easy to use, visually attractive, meeting or exceeding end-user expectations; processing is considered quick; output is in a format that is acceptable; data is accurately stored and easy to retrieve. Features can be customized to the users liking and adaptable to the work environment.
Term Definition
Validation Giving something the stamp of approval or rejection; concerns adhering to specifications under the context of specific parameters. Validation involves checking data entry for accuracy. A check is made to ensure that data meets specified criteria, i.e., being of the correct category. Validation allows data to be checked before processing takes occurs.
Verification Involves ensuring that the information transferred, or copied from a source is the same as the original source documents. Verification techniques used at the basic level include looking at the date and time a document was created and document size. Advanced verification includes looking at every character within a document in addition to file size and date created.
Virtual Collaborative Environment (VCE) To work together from a remote location, while emulating the interaction that you would have in person. Organizations use many technologies, such as web conferencing, video conferencing, teleconferencing, netmeetings, webinars, etc. to support VCEs. Due to the cost of travel, need to involve many people, and time constraints, VCEs are gaining popularity.
Virtual Memory Use of a portion of the hard disk or external memory devices, i.e., removable drives or RAM drives, to swap out data when insufficient RAM is available to hold all such data.
Virtual Organization

A short-term, periodic, or temporary alliance between independent organizations in a potentially long-term relationship. Organizations cooperate based on mutual values and act as a single entity to third parties.

Term Definition
Web An all inclusive term that refers to the World Wide Web or Internet. In some contexts it also refers to intranet and extranet.
Webinar See Web Conferencing.
Web Conferencing A web-conference may be similar to a webinar, but may incorporate video as a part of the interface.
Web Cam A photo or video camera that allows you to transmit images over the web.
Web Master The individual responsible for managing a specific website.
Web Page An individual document generally named with a file extension of .htm or .html that displays content in a browser, such as Microsoft Internet Explorer.
Web Page Address Can be the Internet or intranet location of a Web page.
Web Site Individual web pages or collections or web pages named by home pages or other unique URLs are websites.
Web-Based Integrated Word Processor (WBIWP) A web-based integrated word processor is used for the production (including composition, editing, and formatting) of any sort of readable material. Word processors are descended from early text formatting tools (sometimes called text justification tools, from their only real capability). Word processing was one of the earliest applications for the personal computer in office productivity. The most powerful word processor systems can produce any arbitrary combination of images, graphics and text with full type-setting capability and even enable users to employ styles, which are used to automate consistent formatting of text such as body, titles, subtitles, highlighted text, and so on.
Webcast Typically live or recorded video with an integrated PowerPoint-type presentation. It is usually designed to be one-way communication. If there is a question and answer option, a moderator will serve as an intermediary to queue messages for the facilitator. Webcasts work well when large audiences need to see the message, and facilitator-participant interaction in not desirable because one-way communication is preferred. Webcasts optimize streaming video content, and may use browsers, such as RealPlayer to deploy content.
Webex See Webinar. Webex is a platform for delivering webinars.
Webinar A web-based seminar where participants have the ability to interact with the facilitator and ask questions, or respond to comments through a blog type interface. To be effective, webinars require a trained facilitator, and content which is optimized for presentation on the web. Most webinars are not designed to integrate live video into the interface.
Term Definition
Xerox A generic name given to a photocopy (e.g., Kleenex for tissue).
Term Definition
Yes-Man An individual, usually in a semi-influential position, that agrees to circumstances or decisions verbally, even when they do not in actuality for the sole purpose of organizational politics.
Term Definition
Zero Defects Performance standard developed by Philip B. Crosby, that addresses a dual attitude in the workplace: people are willing to accept imperfection in some areas, while in others, they expect the number of defects to be zero. This attitude has developed as a result of the conditioning that people are human and humans make mistakes. However, the zero-defects methodology states that if people commit themselves to watching details and avoiding errors, they can move closer to the goal of zero defects. The performance standard that must be set is “zero defects,” not “close enough.”
Term Definition
O Value It is not approprite to use as a reference for Null value.