Five Process Groups


Initiating is the process of preparing for, assembling resources and getting the project started and may apply to any level of a project (or subproject), program, activity, or task. The pre-evaluation (or needs assessment) is an important part of this step.


Planning is the process of identifying the means, resources and actions necessary to accomplish an objective. Evaluation at this stage should be directional and involve an establish list of criteria and action steps.


Executing is the period where the actual work of creating the project's deliverables is carried out.

Monitoring and Controlling

Monitor and control is a two-part process. Monitoring involves the capture, analysis, and reporting of project progress, usually as compared to the project plan. The analysis component of monitoring requires an evaluation system in place. Controlling involves keeping in order a project’s time, resources, quality, and so forth. Evaluation in the form of metrics for performance reporting are essential during this phase.


Closing involves acceptance of the project by the project sponsor, completion of project records, final revision and issuance of documentation to reflect the retention of essential project documentation for historical record keeping. Closure should involve a comprehensive review of the other phases of the project. This may involve triangulation to determine differing perspectives of project performance.

*Source: PMI Project Management Body of Knowledge (PMBOK).

Traditional project management approaches utilize life cycles. This typically includes variations of the following four phases:

  • Initiating
  • Planning
  • Executing
  • Closing